Even though the aCovid-19 virus is hosted by bats, some particular subtype might affect other mammals too, including humans. In a direct manner the virus is contacted from infected birds, mostly household poultry but sometimes wild birds also can infect hunters, tribal people, etc. Within an indirect manner the infection can enter the human system via food items contaminated with the virus, polluted water, objects, air, food, etc. by the bodily secretions or excretions of infected birds. The flu virus being airborne, the contamination in the air may be reasonably high, in cases of epidemic or pandemic proportions. Infected people carry the flu virus with them wherever they travel and spread it in air and also on objects they touch via their nasal secretions and bodily discharges.
Personal Protective Equipment or PPE because they are called are equipments intended for health professionals to make use of if they are working in contaminated environments. Nose and mouth respirators or ‘Masks’ are the types most widely used. Bird flu masks are extremely specific related to the truth that the bird flu virus is microscopic and is also not easily filtered out from the environment using conventional filters.
These masks are designed on the guidelines offered by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). According to filtering efficiency, the filters utilized in the N95 Mask fall under 3 categories, namely Type 95, Type 99 and kind 100. The proportions of microscopic (.3 micron wide) particles filtered out by these filters are 95%, 99% and 99.7%, respectively. Also the filters are categorized based upon filter efficiency degradation and they are hence labeled as, N (non-resistant against oil), R (oil resistant) and P (oil proof). Each individual mask is tested in laboratory settings before being approved for sale. But N95 ones are disposable and cannot be cleaned.
The most common ones are N-95 filtering respirators which were approved by NIOSH (also known as as Filtering Facepieces) for being effective drastically cutting down exposure risks to airborne viruses like SARS or Avian Influenza. The usage of masks is recommended to folks employed in high contamination situations, like health care workers attending to patients, or field workers involved in destroying the problem sources, etc.
Another set of extremely powerful, protective masks are Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs). They may be more efficient than N-95 masks in offering better protection. These are generally employed by persons who cannot wear N-95 masks, like individuals with facial hair. This battery operated mask has a face piece with breathing tube and filters.
Even though any mask is not really a guarantee against influenza infection, they dramatically cut down the chances of infection from airborne viruses. It remains to be said however, that the capabilities in the masks degrade as time passes quprnl usage. Aerosols, if contained in the working environments, degrade the filters even more. Hence, Facial Mask must not be used with 100% reliance, but only as among the preventive tool. More so, you can find guidelines that need to be adhered to while (re)using such PPE. It is hence clear the best defense does not lie in any level of measures taken but instead within the knowledge with which these are implemented.